Regarding pitching, the basic fundamentals are to have a slightly open stance, weight predominantly on the left side (for right-handed players) and the ball pretty much between the feet. This causes the shaft to be leaning forward slightly and helps to ensure solid contact. Then we basically just make a mini swing while keeping the weight on the left side. This will insure crisp, solid contact.
The lie is so important with short game shots. If you have a grass cushion under the ball you have more options. If the lie is tight you have to just hit down on the ball and trap it. Sometimes you just have to take your medicine and get the ball on the green somewhere and hope to make a putt but otherwise minimize the damages as much as possible.